Today Peter send me this article, about an Archaeologist discovering pottery shards with residue of Red Willow Bark, a favoured pain reliever the world over. http://westerndigs.org/prehistoric-pottery-found-in-colorado-contains-ancient-natural-aspirin/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_aspirin Red Willow Bark is also a favoured ingredient of the Ojibwa smoking mixture” giniginige ” = to mix something animate with something inanimate”) meaning plants with Animal grease, which is seen as inanimate as long as it is not Bear grease…. The word “kinikinick” comes from “giniginige”. The making of kinikinick nowadays can be a well kept family -or Clan secret. These ingredients are most often found in varying concentrations: Leaves or bark of Red willow bark, as mentioned, freshly dried Dogwood leaves, Arrow Root, Red Sumac, Blueberry twigs, Bear berry leaves, Raspberry leaves Choke Cherry twigs, stems and dried berries, Juniper berries, Mullen and dried Yarrow flowers. As fat the smelllly musk from the gland of the Muskrat was so popular, there are songs and chants about it, but Beaver grease or Badger fat was used as well. For those of us, who wildcraft, early to late summer is the a busy time to gather, dry or prepare all the different plants we need for our medicinal mixtures.